CREATION OF PARTNERSHIP
TEXAS BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
Sec. 152.051. PARTNERSHIP DEFINED.
(a) In this section, "association" does not have the meaning of the term "association" under Section 1.002.
(b) Except as provided by Subsection (c) and Section 152.053(a), an association of two or more persons to carry on a business for profit as owners creates a partnership, regardless of whether:
(1) the persons intend to create a partnership; or
(2) the association is called a "partnership," "joint venture," or other name.
(c) An association or organization is not a partnership if it was created under a statute other than:
(1) this title and the provisions of Title 1 applicable to partnerships and limited partnerships;
(2) a predecessor to a statute referred to in Subdivision (1); or
(3) a comparable statute of another jurisdiction.
(d) The provisions of this chapter govern limited partnerships only to the extent provided by Sections 153.003 and 153.152 and Subchapter H, Chapter 153.
Sec. 152.052. RULES FOR DETERMINING IF PARTNERSHIP IS CREATED.
(a) Factors indicating that persons have created a partnership include the persons':
(1) receipt or right to receive a share of profits of the business;
(2) expression of an intent to be partners in the business;
(3) participation or right to participate in control of the business;
(4) agreement to share or sharing:
(A) losses of the business; or
(B) liability for claims by third parties against the business; and
(5) agreement to contribute or contributing money or property to the business.
(b) One of the following circumstances, by itself, does not indicate that a person is a partner in the business:
(1) the receipt or right to receive a share of profits as payment:
(A) of a debt, including repayment by installments;
(B) of wages or other compensation to an employee or independent contractor;
(C) of rent;
(D) to a former partner, surviving spouse or representative of a deceased or disabled partner, or transferee of a partnership interest;
(E) of interest or other charge on a loan, regardless of whether the amount varies with the profits of the business, including a direct or indirect present or future ownership interest in collateral or rights to income, proceeds, or increase in value derived from collateral; or
(F) of consideration for the sale of a business or other property, including payment by installments;
(2) co-ownership of property, regardless of whether the co-ownership:
(A) is a joint tenancy, tenancy in common, tenancy by the entirety, joint property, community property, or part ownership; or
(B) is combined with sharing of profits from the property;
(3) the right to share or sharing gross returns or revenues, regardless of whether the persons sharing the gross returns or revenues have a common or joint interest in the property from which the returns or revenues are derived; or
(4) ownership of mineral property under a joint operating agreement.
(c) An agreement by the owners of a business to share losses is not necessary to create a partnership.
Sec. 152.053. QUALIFICATIONS TO BE PARTNER; NONPARTNER'S LIABILITY TO THIRD PERSON.
(a) A person may be a partner unless the person lacks capacity apart from this chapter.
(b) Except as provided by Section 152.307, a person who is not a partner in a partnership under Section 152.051 is not a partner as to a third person and is not liable to a third person under this chapter.
Sec. 152.054. FALSE REPRESENTATION OF PARTNERSHIP OR PARTNER.
(a) A false representation or other conduct falsely indicating that a person is a partner with another person does not of itself create a partnership.
(b) A representation or other conduct indicating that a person is a partner in an existing partnership, if that is not the case, does not of itself make that person a partner in the partnership.
Sec. 152.055. AUTHORITY OF CERTAIN PROFESSIONALS TO CREATE PARTNERSHIP.
(a) Persons licensed as doctors of medicine and persons licensed as doctors of osteopathy by the Texas Medical Board, persons licensed as podiatrists by the Texas State Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners, and persons licensed as chiropractors by the Texas Board of Chiropractic Examiners may create a partnership that is jointly owned by those practitioners to perform a professional service that falls within the scope of practice of those practitioners.
(b) When doctors of medicine, osteopathy, podiatry, and chiropractic create a partnership that is jointly owned by those practitioners, the authority of each of the practitioners is limited by the scope of practice of the respective practitioners and none can exercise control over the other's clinical authority granted by their respective licenses, either through agreements, bylaws, directives, financial incentives, or other arrangements that would assert control over treatment decisions made by the practitioner.
(c) The Texas Medical Board, the Texas State Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners, and the Texas Board of Chiropractic Examiners continue to exercise regulatory authority over their respective licenses.
Sec. 152.0551. PARTNERSHIPS FORMED BY PHYSICIANS AND PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS.
(a) Physicians licensed under Subtitle B, Title 3, Occupations Code, and physician assistants licensed under Chapter 204, Occupations Code, may create a partnership to perform a professional service that falls within the scope of practice of those practitioners.
(b) A physician assistant may not be a general partner or participate in the management of the partnership.
(c) A physician assistant may not contract with or employ a physician to be a supervising physician of the physician assistant or of any physician in the partnership.
(d) The authority of each practitioner is limited by the scope of practice of the respective practitioner. An organizer of the entity must be a physician and ensure that a physician or physicians control and manage the entity.
(e) Nothing in this section may be construed to allow the practice of medicine by someone not licensed as a physician under Subtitle B, Title 3, Occupations Code, or to allow a person not licensed as a physician to direct the activities of a physician in the practice of medicine.
(f) A physician assistant or combination of physician assistants may have only a minority ownership interest in an entity created under this section. The ownership interest of an individual physician assistant may not equal or exceed the ownership interest of any individual physician owner. A physician assistant or combination of physician assistants may not interfere with the practice of medicine by a physician owner or the supervision of physician assistants by a physician owner.
(g) The Texas Medical Board and the Texas Physician Assistant Board continue to exercise regulatory authority over their respective license holders according to applicable law. To the extent of a conflict between Subtitle B, Title 3, Occupations Code, and Chapter 204, Occupations Code, or any rules adopted under those statutes, Subtitle B, Title 3, or a rule adopted under that subtitle controls.
Sec. 152.056. PARTNERSHIP AS ENTITY.
A partnership is an entity distinct from its partners.