Texas Wills and Probate Law
TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATES
TEXAS ESTATES CODE, TITLE 2. SUBTITLE J. CHAPTER 452.
APPOINTMENT OF TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATOR GENERALLY
§ 452.001. DUTY TO APPOINT TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATOR.
A judge who determines that the interest of a decedent's estate requires the immediate appointment of a personal representative shall, by written order, appoint a temporary administrator with powers limited as the circumstances of the case require.
§ 452.002. APPLICATION FOR APPOINTMENT.
(a) A person may file with the court clerk a written application for the appointment of a temporary administrator of a decedent's estate under this subchapter.
(b) The application must:
(1) be verified;
(2) include the information required by:
(A) Sections 256.052, 256.053, and 256.054, if the decedent died testate; or
(B) Section 301.052, if the decedent died intestate; and
(3) include an affidavit that:
(A) states the name, address, and interest of the applicant;
(B) states the facts showing an immediate necessity for the appointment of a temporary administrator;
(C) lists the requested powers and duties of the temporary administrator;
(D) states that the applicant is entitled to letters of temporary administration and is not disqualified by law from serving as a temporary administrator; and
(E) describes the property that the applicant believes to be in the decedent's estate.
§ 452.003. ORDER OF APPOINTMENT; REQUIREMENTS.
The order appointing a temporary administrator must:
(1) designate the appointee as "temporary administrator" of the decedent's estate;
(2) specify the period of the appointment, which may not exceed 180 days unless the appointment is made permanent under Section 452.008;
(3) define the powers given to the appointee; and
(4) set the amount of bond to be given by the appointee.
§ 452.004. TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATOR'S BOND.
(a) In this section, "business day" means a day other than a Saturday, Sunday, or holiday recognized by this state.
(b) Not later than the third business day after the date of the order appointing a temporary administrator, the appointee shall file with the county clerk a bond in the amount ordered by the court.
§ 452.005. ISSUANCE OF LETTERS OF TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATION.
Not later than the third day after the date an appointee qualifies as temporary administrator, the county clerk shall issue to the appointee letters of temporary administration that list the powers to be exercised by the appointee as ordered by the court.
§ 452.006. NOTICE OF APPOINTMENT.
(a) On the date the county clerk issues letters of temporary administration:
(1) the county clerk shall post on the courthouse door a notice of the appointment to all interested persons; and
(2) the appointee shall notify, by certified mail, return receipt requested, the decedent's known heirs of the appointment.
(b) A notice required under Subsection (a) must state that:
(1) an heir or other interested person may request a hearing to contest the appointment not later than the 15th day after the date the letters of temporary administration are issued;
(2) if no contest is made during the period specified by the notice, the appointment continues for the period specified in the order appointing a temporary administrator; and
(3) the court may make the appointment permanent.
§ 452.007. HEARING TO CONTEST APPOINTMENT.
(a) A hearing shall be held and a determination made not later than the 10th day after the date an heir or other interested person requests a hearing to contest the appointment of a temporary administrator. If a request is not made on or before the 15th day after the date the letters of temporary administration are issued, the appointment of a temporary administrator continues for the period specified in the order, unless the appointment is made permanent under Section 452.008.
(b) While a contest of the appointment of a temporary administrator is pending, the temporary appointee shall continue to act as administrator of the estate to the extent of the powers given by the appointment.
(c) A court that sets aside a temporary administrator's appointment may require the temporary administrator to prepare and file, under oath, a complete exhibit of the condition of the estate and detail any disposition of the estate property made by the temporary administrator.
§ 452.008. PERMANENT APPOINTMENT.
At the end of a temporary administrator's period of appointment, the court by written order may make the appointment permanent if the permanent appointment is in the interest of the estate.
TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATION PENDING CONTEST OF A WILL OR ADMINISTRATION
§ 452.051. APPOINTMENT OF TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATOR.
(a) If a contest related to probating a will or granting letters testamentary or of administration is pending, the court may appoint a temporary administrator, with powers limited as the circumstances of the case require.
(b) The appointment may continue until the contest is terminated and an executor or administrator with full powers is appointed.
(c) The power of appointment under this section is in addition to the court's power of appointment under Subchapter A.
§ 452.052. ADDITIONAL POWERS REGARDING CLAIMS.
(a) A court that grants temporary administration pending a will contest or a contest on an application for letters of administration may, at any time while the contest is pending, give the temporary administrator all the powers of a permanent administrator regarding claims against the estate.
(b) If the court gives the temporary administrator powers described by Subsection (a), the court and the temporary administrator shall act in the same manner as in permanent administration in matters such as:
(1) approving or disapproving claims;
(2) paying claims; and
(3) selling property to pay claims.
(c) The court shall require a temporary administrator given powers described by Subsection (a) to give bond in the full amount required of a permanent administrator.
(d) This section is cumulative and does not affect the court's right to order a temporary administrator to perform any action described by this section in other cases if the action is necessary or expedient to preserve the estate pending the contest's final determination.
POWERS AND DUTIES OF TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATOR
§ 452.101. LIMITED POWERS OF TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATOR.
(a) A temporary administrator may exercise only the rights and powers:
(1) specifically expressed in the court's order appointing the temporary administrator; or
(2) expressed in the court's subsequent orders.
(b) An act performed by a temporary administrator is void unless expressly authorized by the court's orders.
§ 452.102. ADDITIONAL BOND FOR EXTENSION OF RIGHTS AND POWERS.
A court that extends the rights and powers of a temporary administrator in an order subsequent to the order appointing the temporary administrator may require additional bond commensurate with the extension.
EXPIRATION AND CLOSING OF TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATION
§ 452.151. ACCOUNTING.
At the expiration of a temporary appointment, the temporary administrator shall file with the court clerk:
(1) a sworn list of all estate property that has come into the temporary administrator's possession;
(2) a return of all sales made by the temporary administrator; and
(3) a full exhibit and account of all the temporary administrator's acts as temporary administrator.
§ 452.152. CLOSING TEMPORARY ADMINISTRATION.
(a) The court shall act on the list, return, exhibit, and account filed under Section 452.151.
(b) When letters of temporary administration expire or become ineffective for any cause, the court immediately shall enter an order requiring the temporary administrator to promptly deliver the estate remaining in the temporary administrator's possession to the person legally entitled to possession of the estate.
(c) On proof of delivery under Subsection (b), the temporary administrator shall be discharged and the sureties on the temporary administrator's bond shall be released as to any future liability.